State Motto: Friendship
Small Mammal: Armadillo
Plant: Prickly Pear
Fruit: Texas Red Grapefruit
Population: 22, 859,698
Song: “Texas Our Texas”
Taxes: $150 Billion
Sixteen years after Texas joined the United States, in January 1861, the Secession Convention met in Austin and adopted an Ordinance of Secession on February 1 and a Declaration of Causes
on February 2. This proposal was approved by the voters, but even
before Texas could become "independent" as provided for in the text of
the Ordinance, it was accepted by the Provisional Government of the
Confederate States of America as a state on March 1, 1861.
The Secession Convention, reconvened on March 2, approved an ordinance accepting Confederate statehood
on March 5. Texas delegates to the Provisional Confederate Government
had already been elected, and they were among those who approved the
proposed Confederate Constitution. Their action was confirmed by the Secession Convention on March 23.
Throughout the Civil War period, Texas existed as a state in the
Confederate States of America, its status confirmed by the elected
representatives of the Texas citizens. (Sam Houston, although accepting
the decision of the electorate to secede, protested the Convention's
decision to join the Confederacy since the matter was not submitted to
popular vote. His opposition was insufficient to cause either the
voters or the members of the state legislature to put aside the actions
of the Convention.) John H. Reagan, a Texan, was the Postmaster General
of the C.S.A., and other Texans held prominent government posts
throughout the period.
When the war ended in April 1865, Texas was still considered to be in
revolt (the last battle of the Civil War was fought on Texas soil after
the surrender at Appomattox). Although a state of peace was declared as
existing between the United States and the other Southern States on
April 2, 1866, President Andrew Johnson did not issue a similar proclamation of peace between the U.S. and Texas until August 20, 1866, even though the Constitutional Convention of 1866 had approved on March 15, 1866 an ordinance to nullify the actions of the Secession Convention.
Southern States remained under military government until their
legislatures adopted the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the United
States Constitution. Their readmission to full national status varied
from state to state (Georgia was readmitted twice).
In April 1869, the U.S. Congress passed an Act authorizing voters of Virginia, Mississippi and Texas to vote on their new state constitutions and to elect state officers and Members of Congress. Three months later, President U.S. Grant signed a proclamation submitting the Texas Constitution to the voters of the state.
Texans voted on a revised state constitution in November 1869 and
elected a state government. Once convened, the legislature voted to
ratify the 14th and 15th amendments to the U.S. Constitution (the 13th
amendment having already been fully ratified) and elected two U.S.
Senators, thereby completing the requirements for reinstatement.
President Grant signed the act to readmit Texas to Congressional representation
on March 30, 1870, and this federal act was promulgated throughout
Texas by a general order issued by General Reynolds on April 16, 1870.
No requirement exists -- either in the Reconstruction Acts
governing the rebel states or in the document readmitting Texas to full
statehood -- for the governor of Texas to sign a document reaffirming
Texas' position as a state within the United States republic. The only
ongoing requirement of Texas government was that no constitutional
revision should deny the vote or school rights to any citizen of the
A thorough check of the volumes of federal statutes for the entire
period of Reconstruction (1865-1870) and through 1872 revealed no other
legislation requiring further proof of submission to the U.S.
government on the part of Texas or any other of the "rebel states."
Narrative by Jean Carefoot
Texas State Library and Archives Commission
Taxes Paid by Texans to USA: $150 Billion
For every Dollar paid to the USA, Texans get back only 85 to 90%,
35 other states get back more money than Texas. Keep Texans Taxes in